Discussion: Advanced and Disadvanced of Living in Big City

Basic Competence :
Writing the discussion text based on the generic structures.
Indicators :
  1. Identify the generic stuctures of the `discussion` text with the title `Advantages and Disadvantages living in a big CIty."
  2. Identify the general idea and the main idea.
  3. Get the spesific information, detail information and discourse makers.
  4. Arrange sentences into a good paragraph (a part of discussion text)
  5. Arrange paragraphs into a good discussion text.

Hello everybody. Welcome to join with the English program. Well, now you are going to studying about `writing`. The writing is about `discussion` with the title Advantages and Disadvantages Living in A Big City`. The writing skills you will learn including `finding main ideas, looking for spesific information and recognizing the generic structure of the text, writing a paragraph by arranging sentences, and writing a discussion text by arranging paragraphs. By the end of this program, you must be to write a discussion text correctly. You essay must be based on the general features of a discusssion text.

Before you read a discussion text, the steps you must study are the following general features of the discussion below.
  • Social Purpose
    Discussion are used to present information about arguments for both sides of an issue. Discussion also allow us to explore various perspectives before coming to an informed decision.
    A discussion relies on the logical presentation of facts and can be written to :
    • Persuade the reader of the writer`s point of view
    • present pros and cons of an issue in order to convidence the reader of the writer`s point of view, and
    • present pros and cons of an issue to allow the reader to reach logical conclusion.
  • Generic Structures (Schematic Structures) of the text
    Discussion are usually organized to include :
    • a statement outlining the issue, often accompanied by some background information about the issue.
    • a case for/argument for case/argument against, including evidance for different points of view,
    • a conclution, which might sum up both sides or might recommend in favor of one particular side.
    • Argument : the body of an exposition, presenting the evidence in fabour of a thesis.
    • Argument for : part of the body a discussion presenting arguments in favour of the proposition in the issue stage.
    • Argument against : part of the body of a discussion presenting arguments against the the proposition in the issue stage.
  • Grammar
    Common grammatical patterns of the discussion text include :
    • Use general nouns to make statements about categories, e.g. air port aprons.
    • Use relating verbs to provide informaton about the issue, e.g. smoking is harmful, to eliminated accidents and incidents that occur on airport aprons (ramps).
    • Use thinking verbs to express the writer`s personal of view, e.g. feel, believe, hope.
    • Use of additive, contrastive and causal constrastive to link arguments, e.g. similiarly on the other hand, however.
    • Use the detailed noun groups to provide information in compact way, e.g. the primary cause of...
    • Use of varying degree of modality, e.g. perhaps, must, should, might.
    • Use of adverbials of minner, e.g. deliberately, hopefully.
    • Use of relational, e.g.: are, can be, are having, should or shouldn`t have, is, become.
    • Reasoning expressed as nouns (abstraction), e.g. reason, or many reason, etc.
  • Reading for the gist (the main idea) and the information<
    • The general idea is the topic of the text which is discussed generally for the whole paragraph.
    • The topic sentence of a paragraph contains the main idea. The main idea can be in the first sentence of a paragraph or in the last sentence of a paragraph, or somewhere in the middle of a paragraph or stated implicity.
    • The specific information or the detailed information is the information which is givin in detail to support the main idea in the text.
Living In A Big City (modeling)
B. Modeling of a discussion Text
Read the text carefully and answer questions below!

Penonton yang sedang menonton konser
Living in a big city has both advantages and disadvantages.
Case for/argument for
On the plus side, it is often easier to find work, and there is usually a choice of public transport, so you don`t need to own a car. Also, there are a lot of interesting things ro do and places to see.
For example, you can eat in good restourants, visit museums, and go to the theatre and concerts. What is more, when you want to relax, you can usually find a park where you can feed the ducks or just sit on a park beach and read a book. All in all, city life is full of bustle and variety and you need never feel bored.
Case against /argument against
However, for every plus there is a minus. For one thing, you might have ajob, but unless it very well paid, you will not able to afford many of things that there are to do, because living in a big city is often very expensive.
It is particularly difficult to find good, cheap accommodation. What is more, public transport is sometimes crowded and dirty, particularly in the rush hour, and even rhe park can become very crowded, especially on Sundays when it seems that every city dweller is looking for some open place and green grass. Last of all, despite all the crowds, it is still possible to feel lonely in a city.
In conclusion, I think that city life can be particularly appealing to young people, who like the excitement of the city and don`t mind the noise and pollution. However, many people, when they got older, and particularly when they have young children, often profer the peace and fresh air of the countryside.
(Adapted from an article in The Week-end Australia Magazine, 2005)
Before you write an essay, answer the following question!

Urban People Should Be Banned To Own Automatic And Some- Automatic Guns (Modeling)
Read the text below the identify by answering the quide questions.
Cross "Yes" and "No" as your correct answer!
First I`ll state my points in why automatic and semi-automatic should be banned.
Automatic and Semi-automatic guns are military weapons. The automatic guns fires continuously for about 20 seconds firing a magazine of hundreds of bullets untuil the triggers are released. Although they are military weapons they are sold the public and are found from urbanized areas to the country farms.
People buy them for keeping them at the house in case of break-in but in the case you wouldn`t need a giant weapon a fend off the a robber and with children they can be fatal.
Also people with psychiatric disorders shoul not be allowed to own or use a weapon like automatic firefarm or people with great emotional difficulties otherwisw there might be another Stratified messacre.
If gun also falls into the wrong hands (like they usually do) it will result in murder, robbery, and other crimes. If guns is banned the rate murder will go dramatically down.
In this next section I`m going to talk about why Automatic and Semi-automatic guns shouldn`t be banned.
Farmers sometimes need these rifles not as weapons but maybe to put down a cow with broken legs or spinal cord it is the quickest way to kill animal without it feeling a long period pain.
Also people who shoot game for a sport will lose the privilege of having a gun that they can shoot a bullet immediately one after the other instead of losing sight of the animal.
Well as you can see. I have more points for getting rid of the weapons that against, so from this you obviously can see what must be done. Not only to make things safer but to bring humanity to parts of our society. I don`t think the automatic or semi-automatic weapons should be distributed throughout community in urbanized areas because they are juat another exuse for trouble.
(Adapted from Module : Broad of Studies, New South Wales, Australia)


I. Arrage the following sentences into a correct paragraph! you type the letter as your correct answer
the space provided below!
  1. Well managed forestry practices can be very beneficial to the whole timber industry and the thousands of people who depend on it.
  2. The Swedes can be export timber products indefinitely because they have managed the forest well and not destroyed them with uncontrolled cutting.
  3. Large areas of land are laid bare on hillsides and the soil is washed down by rain, The demand for timber is great in the world market.
  4. They exploit the nothern forests for their timber.
  5. While the small communities `slash and burn` small area or land for planting, logging companies are stripping the land of the timber.
  6. In the south of Sweden, farmers` cereals, potatoes and sugar beet, and rear cattle and pigs.
  7. In some parts of Kalimantan, large of land are being cleared in housing and for agriculture. But the largest clearings are for the timber.
II. Arrage the following paragraphs into a discussion text! you type the letter as your correct answer
the space provided below
  1. The nursery school on the ground floor acommodates 80 pre school children aged one and a half to five or six. Kotoen, on the first and the second floors, is the home for about 100 seniors citizen,
    Although many of the elderly residents live in the home by choice, they still long for family life.
  2. The reason for this is the happy voices of the children who attend the Edogawa School located in the same building
  3. Kotoen in the Edogawa district of Tokyo is a home for elderly, so you might expect it to be a gloomy place. However, the people who live there are always bright and cheerful.
  4. The declining number of children now being born each years has left unused space at many nursery school.
  5. "As for the elderly, though their association with the children they become more alive and their health improves.
    Seeing these old people, many of whom we thought had forgotten how to laugh or even express their thoughts, holding the children and happily talking with them, brings home just how important an effectionate relationship between the very old and the very young be."
  6. It has therefore been suggested that these surplus areas are utilized by the elderly. In this way, in sprite of living in small nuclear households, children can experience the advantages of close contact with people of much older generation.
  7. Being the same building allows them to visit the nursely school whenever they wish, while the children often go upstairs to play, In the morning, both old and young gather outside for exercises. Special times such as Cristmas and sports days are always celebrated together.
    "We find the children learn how to case for other by talking and being with thier older co residents." explained Maeda Takinni, the Director of Kotoen.
III. Answer the questions completely! Your answers are compiled to be good paragraf!


Read the following text then complete the missing words with the words supplied in the bix! You type the letter on the space provided below!
Arrange the foolowing sentences into the correct essay
  1. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss with my family.
  2. Homework helps people who aren`t very small to remember what they have learned.
  3. I think we shouldn`t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important.
  4. I think we shouldn`t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important.
  5. Homework is really good because it helps with our education.

Arrange the foolowing sentences into the correct essay
  1. On the other hand not all poeple treat their dogs in this way and why should the people who receive a lot of pleasure and enjoyment from dogs suffer? Dogs can make alonely person`s life happy or make a wonderful playmate. It can be also teach a child responsibility as they not only get to play to with the dog, but also need to exercise, feed and care for the dog.
  2. There are many reasons for keeping dogs as pets in the city area but also many people who feel that dogs should not be allowed in the city.
  3. I feel that we should be allowed to keep dogs in the city, because if taken care of properly, dogs can be greater loyalty, a person can get than from a well-cared- for dog
  4. Dogs are often not taken care of properly. They are kept in small backyards and rarely taken for walks. They left in they yard all day by themselves while the family is at work. Very little attention is ever given to the dog and it is not a very good life for it. It is no wonder these dogs bark and disturb the neighbours and become a nuisance to the cummunity.